1th Kefa Jewish New Testament and comment David H. Stern

chapter 5
1. Therefore, I urge the congregation leaders among you, as a fellow-leader and witness to the Messiah’s sufferings, as well as a sharer in the glory to be revealed:
Kefa writes the elders humbly, as a fellow-elder, not as a superior, even though he personally was a witness to the Messiah's sufferings. The glory to be revealed, as at Ro 8:18, "1 don't think the sufferings we are going through now are even worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed to us in the future." Alternatively: "the Sh'khinah to be revealed," as at 4:13-14&N. 

2. shepherd the flock of God that is in your care, exercising oversight not out of constraint, but willingly, as God wants; and not out of a desire for dishonest gain, but with enthusiasm;
3. also not as machers domineering over those in your care, but as people who become examples to the flock.
Shepherd the flock. Kefa is faithfully transmitting Yeshua"s command to him at Yn 21:16.
Exercising oversight... willingly. Some elders take too little responsibility, so that their congregations remain weak and undisciplined. If it is true that the Messiah wants followers who will follow, all the more does he want leaders who will lead — but not as machers. The word "macher" is Yiddish for "big shot, real operator," with the overtone of trying to take charge; the perfect New Testament example is Diotrephes (3 Yn 9-10). The Greek word so rendered here is "katakurieuontes" ("lording it over", "trying to show one's authority," "domineering"). 

4. Then, when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive glory as your unfading crown.
5. Likewise, you who are less experienced, submit to leaders. Further, all of you should clothe yourselves in humility toward one another, because 'God opposes the arrogant, but to the humble he gives grace' (Proverbs 3:34).
6. Therefore, humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, so that at the right time he may lift you up.
7. Throw all your anxieties upon him, because he cares about you.
Compare Psalm 55:23(22). 

8. Stay sober, stay alert! Your enemy, the Adversary, stalks about like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.
The Adversary is Satan, who is real (Mt 4:1N) and should be resisted (v. 9, Ya 4:8). 

9. Stand against him, firm in your trust, knowing that your brothers throughout the world are going through the same kinds of suffering.
10. You will have to suffer only a little while; after that, God, who is full of grace, the one who called you to his eternal glory in union with the Messiah, will himself restore, establish and strengthen you and make you firm.
11. To him be the power forever and ever. Amen.
12. Through Sila, whom I regard as a faithful brother, I have written you briefly, encouraging you and giving my witness that this is God’s true grace. Stand firm in it!
13. Your sister congregation in Bavel, chosen along with you, sends greetings to you, as does my son Mark.
14. Greet each other with a kiss of love.
Shalom aleikhem!” to all who belong to the Messiah.
At one point Yochanan Mark abandoned Sha'ul and Bar-Nabba (Ac 13:5,13), with the result that Sha'ul and Bar-Nabba split over whether to take him with them again, and Sha'ul took Sila instead (Ac I5:22&N, 15:39&N).

Babylon was a common euphemism for Rome among Jewish writers seeking to avoid censorship and worse (see Midrash Rabbah on Song of Songs 1:6, Megillah 6b, Makkot 24a). "Rome was called Babylon because it was the worst kingdom" (Yechiel Lichtenstein on this verse).
Shalom aleikhem. "Peace be upon you," a common Hebrew greeting then and now. See Mt 10:12N. 

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