1 Timothy Jewish New Testament and comment David H. Stern
1. Those who are under the yoke of slavery should regard their masters as worthy of full respect, so that the name of God and the teaching will not be brought into disrepute.
2. And those who have believing masters are not to show them less respect on the ground that they are brothers; on the contrary, they should serve all the more diligently, since those benefiting from their service are believers whom they love. Teach and exhort people about these things.
3. If anyone teaches differently and does not agree to the sound precepts of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah and to the doctrine that is in keeping with godliness,
4. he is swollen with conceit and understands nothing. Instead, he has a morbid desire for controversies and word-battles, out of which come jealousy, dissension, insults, evil suspicions,
Controversies and word-battles. Compare 1:4&N.
5. and constant wrangling among people whose minds no longer function properly and who have been deprived of the truth, so that they imagine that religion is a road to riches.
6. Now true religion does bring great riches, but only to those who are content with what they have.
For how many people is religion discredited because those who profess it demonstrate by their lives that they consider it a road to riches! The sad thing is that by their greed they have been deprived of the truth, of the riches of true religion.
7. For we have brought nothing into the world; and we can take nothing out of it;
"I came naked from my mother's womb, and I will return there naked: Adonai gave, Adonai has taken away; blessed be the name of Adonai" (Job 1:21). Also see Psalm 49:17-18, Ecclesiastes 5:15 and in the Mishna, Pirkey-Avot 6:9 (quoted in Rv 14:13N).
8. so if we have food and clothing, we will be satisfied with these.
"Give me neither poverty nor riches, but feed me with my proper share" (Proverbs 30:8).
9. Furthermore, those whose goal is to be rich fall into temptation; they get trapped in many foolish and hurtful ambitions which plunge them into ruin and destruction.
Compare the "thorns" of Mt 13:7, 22; Lk 8:14. "Do not struggle to become rich; because you have understanding, forbear" (Proverbs 23:4). Also Proverbs 28:22.
10. For the love of money is a root of all the evils; because of this craving, some people have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves to the heart with many pains.
It is not money itself but the love of money (v. 10) which is the root of all the evils. Or: "Loving money leads to all kinds of evils." Likewise, fundraising for religious purposes is not a sin. I trust people's gut reactions about such matters — greed and bad taste are hard to hide.
11. But you, as a man of God, flee from these things; and pursue righteousness, godliness, faithfulness, love, steadfastness, gentleness.
12. Fight the good fight of the faith, take hold of the eternal life to which you were called when you testified so well to your faith before many witnesses.
Fight the good fight of faith. Sha'ul did (2 Ti 4:6-8). The fight of faith is against sin, not against people (2C 10:3-5, Ep 6:10-13).
13. I charge you before God, who gives life to all things, and before the Messiah Yeshua, who in his witness to Pontius Pilate gave the same good testimony,
Sha'ul's only mention of Yeshua's trial before the Roman court. See Mt 27:11-14; Yn 18:33-38, 19:9-11.
14. to obey your commission spotlessly and irreproachably until our Lord Yeshua the Messiah appears.
15. His appearing will be brought about in its own time by the blessed and sole Sovereign, who is King of kings and Lord of lords,
King of kings and Lord of lords. "For Adonai your God is God of gods and Lord of lords" (Deuteronomy 10:17). See Rv 19:16&N.
16. who alone is immortal, who dwells in unapproachable light that no human being has ever seen or can see — to him be honor and eternal power. Amen.
17. As for those who do have riches in this present world, charge them not to be proud and not to let their hopes rest on the uncertainties of riches but to rest their hopes on God, who richly provides us with all things for our enjoyment.
18. Charge them to do good, to be rich in good deeds, to be generous and ready to share.
19. In this way they will treasure up for themselves a good foundation for the future, so that they may lay hold of the real life.
The theme of riches (vv. 5-10) returns. Compare Jeremiah 9:22-23(23-24). "If riches increase, don't set your heart upon them" (Psalm 62:11(10)).
20. Oh, Timothy! Keep safe what has been entrusted to you. Turn away from the ungodly babblings and the argumentative opposition of what is falsely called “knowledge.”
21. For many who promise this “knowledge” have missed the mark, as far as the faith is concerned. Grace be with you.
Ungodly babblings and argumentative opposition. Compare 1:4, 4:7, 6:4-5. On "knowledge," the keyword in Gnosticism, see 2C 8:1&N, Co 1:19&N.
- chapter 1
- chapter 2
- chapter 3
- chapter 4
- chapter 5
- chapter 6