1 Thessalonians Jewish New Testament and comments of David H. Stern

chapter 3
1. So when we could no longer stand it, we agreed to be left in Athens alone
2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God’s fellow worker for the Good News of the Messiah, to make you solid and encourage you in your trust;
We were... left in Athens alone; and we sent Timothy. See 2:17-18; also Ac 17:13-15, 18:5, 19:22. 

3. so that none of you would let these persecutions unsettle him. For you yourselves know that these are bound to come to us;
Persecutions... are bound to come to us, as Yeshua himself promised (Mt 24:4-13, Yn 16:33). 

4. even when we were with you, we kept telling you in advance that we were about to be persecuted; and indeed it has happened, as you know.
5. That is the reason why, after I could stand it no longer, I sent to find out about your trust. I was afraid that somehow the Tempter had tempted you, and our hard work had been wasted.
6. But now Timothy has come to us from you, bringing good news about your trust and love, and telling us that you remember us well and are always longing to see us, just as we long to see you.
7. Because of this, brothers, in spite of all our trouble and distress, we were comforted over you — because of your trust;
8. so that now we are alive; since you continue to stand fast, united with the Lord.
9. Indeed, how can we thank God enough for you or express to our God all the joy we feel because of you?
10. Night and day we pray as hard as we can that we will be able to see you face to face and supply whatever shortcomings there may be in your trust.
Night and day we pray. Sha'ul's advice is to pray regularly (5:17), and he follows his own advice. His frame of reference seems to be the synagogue, with its evening and morning prayers (Ma 'ariv and Shacharii respectively). He mentions night first because Jewish days start at sunset. He uses the same expression at 2 Ti 1:3. 

11. May God our Father and our Lord Yeshua direct our way to you.
12. And as for you, may the Lord make you increase and overflow in love toward each other, indeed, toward everyone, just as we do toward you;
13. so that he may give you the inner strength to be blameless, by reason of your holiness, when you stand before God our Father at the coming of our Lord Yeshua with all his angels.
Blameless, by reason of your holiness. This anticipates 4:1-12.
At the coming of our Lord Yeshua. This anticipates 4:13-5:6; see 1:9-10N.
With all his angels (literally, "holy ones"); on angels see Ac 7:53N, Ga 3:19N, MJ 1:4-2:2&NN. On the basis of 4:16-17 it is tempting to understand the "holy ones" as the believers; but against this compare 2 Th 1:7 and see Rv 19:14&N. 

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