Luke Jewish New Testament and comment David H. Stern

chapter 10
1. After this, the Lord appointed seventy other talmidim and sent them on ahead in pairs to every town and place where he himself was about to go.
Seventy. The emissaries numbered twelve to correspond with the twelve tribes of Israel; this is made explicit at 22:30 (Mt 19:28) and Rv 21:12-14. These seventy correspond to the seventy elders Moshe appointed in the wilderness, who received of the Spirit and prophesied (Numbers 11:16, 24-25). The high Sanhedrin numbered seventy for the same reason.

2. He said to them, “To be sure, there is a large harvest. But there are few workers. Therefore, plead with the Lord of the Harvest that he speed workers out to gather in his harvest.
3. Get going now, but pay attention! I am sending you out like lambs among wolves.
4. Don’t carry a money-belt or a pack, and don’t stop to shmoose with people on the road.
Don't stop to shmoose with people on the road. K.I V translates medena aspasisthe as "Salute no one," but the Yiddish word "shmoose." which means "talk in a friendly way, chit-chat, engage in idle conversation, gossip" and is derived from Hebrew shmu'ot ("things heard, rumors"), conveys precisely the sense of Yeshua's instruction not to waste time on the road but to hasten to the destination and get on with the work to be done. Elisha similarly instructed Gehazi as he left to lay Elisha's staff on the face of the Shunammite woman's dead child: "If thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not again" (2 Kings 4:29, KJV).

5. “Whenever you enter a house, first say, ‘Shalom!’ to the household.
6. If a seeker of shalom is there, your ‘Shalom!’ will find its rest with him; and if there isn’t, it will return to you.
Shalom! See Mt 10:12N.

7. Stay in that same house, eating and drinking what they offer, for a worker deserves his wages — don’t move about from house to house.
8. “Whenever you come into a town where they make you welcome, eat what is put in front of you.
9. Heal the sick there, and tell them, ‘The Kingdom of God is near you.’
10. But whenever you enter a town and they don’t make you welcome, go out into its streets and say,
11. ‘Even the dust of your town that sticks to our feet we wipe off as a sign against you! But understand this: the Kingdom of God is near!’
11 The message of truth is to be proclaimed whether it is welcomed or not. Why should people uninterested in the Gospel and unreceptive to it be evangelized? Because the message itself is powerful, since it comes from God; it may cause them to change their minds. Note that Yeshua's talmidim are not merely to take opposition in stride, but to condemn it (vv. 10-11a; see 9:5N).

12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable on the Day of Judgment for S’dom than for that town.
On the Day of Judgment, literally, "on that Day." S'dom. See Genesis 18:20-19:29.

13. “Woe to you, Korazin! Woe to you, Beit-Tzaidah! For if the miracles done in you had been done in Tzor and Tzidon, they would long ago have put on sackcloth and ashes as evidence that they had changed their ways.
Tzor and Tzidon. See Mt 11:21N.

14. But at the Judgment it will be more bearable for Tzor and Tzidon than for you!
15. “And you, K’far-Nachum, will you be exalted to heaven? No, you will be brought down to Sh’ol (Isaiah 14:13, 15)
The p'shal ("simple sense") of Isaiah 14:12-15 (see Mt 2:15N) refers lo the actual King of Tyre, but many interpreters see in this passage a remez ("hint") alluding indirectly to the Adversary, Satan (Mt 4:1N), as the "bright star, son of the morning" (rendered "Lucifer" in KJV).

16. “Whoever listens to you listens to me, also whoever rejects you rejects me, and whoever rejects me rejects the One who sent me.”
Whoever rejects me (Yeshua) rejects the One who sent me (God). The same idea, that belief in God necessarily implies belief in Yeshua, is expressed in variously different ways also at Yn 14:6, Ac 4:12, 1 Yn 2:23.

17. The seventy came back jubilant. “Lord,” they said, “with your power, even the demons submit to us!”
With your power, literally, "in your name." See Ac 2:38N.

18. Yeshua said to them, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.
19. Remember, I have given you authority; so you can trample down snakes and scorpions, indeed, all the Enemy’s forces; and you will remain completely unharmed.
You can trample down snakes and scorpions. This is a preview of the Messianic-Age which accompanies Yeshua's return in glory to rule on earth: "The suckling child shall play on the hole of the cobra, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the viper's nest" (Isaiah 11:8). See also Mk 16:17-J8&N.

20. Nevertheless, don’t be glad that the spirits submit to you; be glad that your names have been recorded in heaven.”
Be glad your names have been recorded in heaven. Judaism features prominently the idea that the names of the forgiven are recorded in heaven. The liturgy for Rosh-HaShanah (Jewish New Year) includes a prayer for being written in the Book of Life, and the Yom-Kippur (Day of Atonement) liturgy nine days later has a prayer for being "sealed" in the Book of Life, the idea being that the decision is made final on that day (but see Yn 7:37N). For more see Rv 20:12bN.

21. At that moment he was filled with joy by the Ruach HaKodesh and said, “Father, Lord of heaven and earth, I thank you because you concealed these things from the sophisticated and educated, yet revealed them to ordinary people. Yes, Father, I thank you that it pleased you to do this.
22. “My Father has handed over everything to me. Indeed, no one fully knows who the Son is except the Father, and who the Father is except the Son and those to whom the Son wishes to reveal him.”
23. Then, turning to the talmidim, he said, privately, “How blessed are the eyes that see what you are seeing!
24. Indeed, I tell you that many prophets and kings wanted to see the things you are seeing but did not see them, and to hear the things you are hearing but did not hear them.”
25. An expert in Torah stood up to try and trap him by asking, “Rabbi, what should I do to obtain eternal life?”
An expert in Torah. Greek nomikos, which would be rendered "lawyer" in a non-Jewish context, here means a specialist in Jewish law, including both the Written Torah and the Oral Torah ("Tradition of the Elders" in Mk 7:2-4&N).

26. But Yeshua said to him, “What is written in the Torah? How do you read it?”
27. He answered, You are to love Adonai your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your understanding; and your neighbor as yourself" (Deuteronomy 6:5; Leviticus 19:18)
28. “That’s the right answer,” Yeshua said. “Do this, and you will have life.”
29. But he, wanting to justify himself, said to Yeshua, “And who is my ‘neighbor’?”
30. Taking up the question, Yeshua said: “A man was going down from Yerushalayim to Yericho when he was attacked by robbers. They stripped him naked and beat him up, then went off, leaving him half dead.
31. By coincidence, a cohen was going down on that road; but when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.
32. Likewise a Levi who reached the place and saw him also passed by on the other side.
L'vi. See 5:27N.

33. “But a man from Shomron who was traveling came upon him; and when he saw him, he was moved with compassion.
A man from Shomron, that is, a Samaritan, specifically the "Good Samaritan." There had been enmity for centuries between the Jews and the Samaritans (see Yn 4:9N), so that Yeshua's questioner would probably have subscribed to the prevailing low opinion of Samaritans among Jews and could be expected to think that if a cohen and a L'vi refused the man aid, how much more would a mistrustful Samaritan also refuse him aid. Yeshua himself had recently traveled through Shomron (9:51-53).

34. So he went up to him, put oil and wine on his wounds and bandaged them. Then he set him on his own donkey, brought him to an inn and took care of him.
Oil and wine were considered medicine.

35. The next day, he took out two days’ wages, gave them to the innkeeper and said, ‘Look after him; and if you spend more than this, I’ll pay you back when I return.’
Two days' wages, literally, "two denarii."

36. Of these three, which one seems to you to have become the ‘neighbor’ of the man who fell among robbers?”
37. He answered, “The one who showed mercy toward him.” Yeshua said to him, “You go and do as he did.”
38. On their way Yeshua and his talmidim came to a village where a woman named Marta welcomed him into her home.
39. She had a sister called Miryam who also sat at the Lord’s feet and heard what he had to say.
40. But Marta was busy with all the work to be done; so, going up to him, she said, “Sir, don’t you care that my sister has been leaving me to do all the work by myself?”
41. However, the Lord answered her, “Marta, Marta, you are fretting and worrying about so many things!
42. But there is only one thing that is essential. Miryam has chosen the right thing, and it won’t be taken away from her.”
There is only one thing that is essential, namely, paying attention to Yeshua. Or the Greek may be translated, "One thing is needed"; so that Marta. instead of fretting and worrying about so many things, could have served Yeshua just one dish and then been able to relax and join her sister.

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