Mark, Jewish New Testament and comment David H. Stern

chapter 14
1. It was now two days before Pesach (that is, the festival of Matzah), and the head cohanim and the Torah-teachers were trying to find some way to arrest Yeshua surreptitiously and have him put to death;
Pesach (Passover) is also called the festival of Matzah (unleavened bread). See Mt 26:2N, 26:17N.

2. for they said, “Not during the festival, or the people will riot.”
3. While he was in Beit-Anyah in the home of Shim‘on (a man who had had tzara‘at), and as he was eating, a woman came with an alabaster jar of perfume, pure oil of nard, very costly. She broke the jar and poured the perfume over Yeshua’s head.
4. But some there angrily said to themselves, “Why this waste of perfume?
5. It could have been sold for a year’s wages and given to the poor!” And they scolded her.
A year's wages, literally, "300 denarii."

6. But he said, “Let her be. Why are you bothering her? She has done a beautiful thing for me.
7. For you will always have the poor with you; and whenever you want to, you can help them. But you will not always have me.
See Yn 12:8N.

8. What she could do, she did do — in advance she poured perfume on my body to prepare it for burial.
9. Yes! I tell you that wherever in the whole world this Good News is proclaimed, what she has done will be told in her memory.”
10. Then Y’hudah from K’riot, who was one of the Twelve, went to the head cohanim in order to betray Yeshua to them.
11. They were pleased to hear this and promised to give him money. And he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Yeshua.
12. On the first day for matzah, when they slaughtered the lamb for Pesach, Yeshua’s talmidim asked him, “Where do you want us to go and prepare your Seder?”
See Mt 26:17N.

13. He sent two of his talmidim with these instructions: “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him;
14. and whichever house he enters, tell him that the Rabbi says, ‘Where is the guest room for me, where I am to eat the Pesach meal with my talmidim?’
15. He will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. Make the preparations there.”
16. The talmidim went off, came to the city and found things just as he had told them they would be; and they prepared the Seder.
17. When evening came, Yeshua arrived with the Twelve.
18. As they were reclining and eating, Yeshua said, “Yes! I tell you that one of you is going to betray me.”
See Mt 26:20N.

19. They became upset and began asking him, one after the other, “You don’t mean me, do you?”
20. “It’s one of the Twelve,” he said to them, “someone dipping matzah in the dish with me.
The dish, perhaps of charoset. See Mt 26:23N.

21. For the Son of Man will die, just as the Tanakh says he will; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been better for him had he never been born!”
22. While they were eating, Yeshua took a piece of matzah, made the b’rakhah, broke it, gave it to them and said, “Take it! This is my body.”
23. Also he took a cup of wine, made the b’rakhah, and gave it to them; and they all drank.
24. He said to them, “This is my blood, which ratifies the New Covenant, my blood shed on behalf of many people.
25. Yes! I tell you, I will not drink this ‘fruit of the vine’ again until the day I drink new wine in the Kingdom of God.”
26. After singing the Hallel, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
27. Yeshua said to them, “You will all lose faith in me, for the Tanakh says, 'I will strike the shepherd dead, and the sheep will be scattered'. (Zechariah 13:7)
28. But after I have been raised, I will go ahead of you into the Galil.”
See Mt 26:23-30&N. See also Appendix, p. 932.

29. Kefa said to him, “Even if everyone else loses faith in you, I won’t.”
30. Yeshua replied, “Yes! I tell you that this very night, before the rooster crows twice, you will disown me three times!”
31. But Kefa kept insisting, “Even if I must die with you, I will never disown you!” And they all said the same thing.
32. They went to a place called Gat Sh’manim; and Yeshua said to his talmidim, “Sit here while I pray.”
Gat-Sh'manim, Gethsemane. See Mt 26:36N.

33. He took with him Kefa, Ya‘akov and Yochanan. Great distress and anguish came over him;
34. and he said to them, “My heart is so filled with sadness that I could die! Remain here and stay awake.”
35. Going on a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that if possible, the hour might pass from him:
36. “Abba!” (that is, “Dear Father!”) “All things are possible for you. Take this cup away from me! Still, not what I want, but what you want.”
Abba! (that is, "Dear Father!"). Hebrew has incorporated the Aramaic word "Abba," which is a familiar way of addressing one's father. It is the equivalent of "Dad" or "Daddy"; like all Israeli children, my own call me "Abba." Judaism teaches that anyone can address God, and that God is close to each one; many prayers commence with, Avinu sh'bushammayim ("Our Father who art in heaven"; see Mt 6:9-13&N). Nevertheless. Judaism regards it as unacceptable to appear overly familiar with God. Thus the Mishna tells this story about the winsome, offbeat first-century B.C.E. rabbi known as Honi the Circle-Maker:

"Once they asked Honi the Circle-Maker to pray for rain. He said to them, 'Go out and bring in the Pesach ovens [which were made of clay], so they won't be softened [by the rain].' He prayed, but no rain fell. So what did he do? He drew a circle, stood inside it and said to God, 'Master of the Universe, your children have turned to me because they consider me a son i n your household. I swear by your great name that I will not move from here until you show compassion on your children!' A few drops fell. 'I didn't pray for that kind of rain, but for rain thai will fill the ditches, caves and water cisterns.' Rain began falling violently. 'I didn't pray for that kind of rain either, but for good, pleasant rain that will be a blessing.' Then it began to rain normally [and kept on so long they had to ask him to pray it would stop]...

"Shim'on ben-Sh'tach sent a message to him: 'If you were anyone except Honi, I would have pronounced a ban of excommunication on you! But what can I do to you? You beg God and he does what you want, like a son who cajoles his father and he does what he wants."'(Ta'anit 3:8; and see the Gemara on it at Ta'anit 23a)

Shim'on ben-Sh'tach's reason for being ready to excommunicate Honi was his acting too familiar with God. This we know from B'rakhot 19a, which asks, "What about excommunicating someone who behaves familiarly with Heaven?" and then quotes the same paragraph about Honi and Shim'on ben-Sh'tach. The article on "Abba" in Gerhard Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 1:6, says: "As concerns the usage of Jesus, the probability is that He employed the word Abba not merely where it is expressly attested (Mark 14:36) but in all cases, and particularly in address to God, where the Evangelists record Him as saying о pater, pater ["Father"], pater той, pater той ["my Father"], and even perhaps pater imon [our Father]."

Notes give Mt 11:26, Mk 14:36, Yn 5:36, Ro 8:15, Ga 4:6; Mt 11:25. Lk 11:2, 23:34, Yn 11:41, 12:27f., 17:5; Mt 11:27, 26:53; Mt 26:39, 42; and Mt 6:9, respectively, for the five Greek terms.
Elsewhere in the New Testament the word "Abba" is always associated with the Holy Spirit and with adoption (Ro 8:14b-17&N, Ga 4:6). For different but related discussions see Mt 2:15&N and Mt 27:16-24&N.

37. He came and found them sleeping; and he said to Kefa, “Shim‘on, are you asleep? Couldn’t you stay awake one hour?
38. Stay awake, and pray that you will not be put to the test — the spirit indeed is eager, but human nature is weak.”
39. Again he went away and prayed, saying the same words;
40. and again he came and found them sleeping, their eyes were so very heavy; and they didn’t know what to answer him.
41. The third time, he came and said to them, “For now, go on sleeping, take your rest. . . .There, that’s enough! The time has come! Look! The Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners!
42. Get up! Let’s go! Here comes my betrayer!”
43. While Yeshua was still speaking, Y’hudah (one of the Twelve!) came, and with him a crowd carrying swords and clubs, from the head cohanim, the Torah-teachers and the elders.
44. The betrayer had arranged to give them a signal: “The man I kiss is the one you want. Grab him, and take him away under guard.”
45. As he arrived, he went right up to Yeshua, said, “Rabbi!” and kissed him.
46. Then they laid hold of Yeshua and arrested him;
47. but one of the people standing nearby drew his sword and struck at the servant of the cohen hagadol, cutting off his ear.
48. Yeshua addressed them: “So you came out to take me with swords and clubs, the way you would the leader of a rebellion?
49. Every day I was with you in the Temple court, teaching, and you didn’t seize me then! But let the Tanakh be fulfilled.”
50. And they all deserted him and ran away.
51. There was one young man who did try to follow him; but he was wearing only a nightshirt; and when they tried to seize him,
52. he slipped out of the nightshirt and ran away naked.
53. They led Yeshua to the cohen hagadol, with whom all the head cohanim, elders and Torah-teachers were assembling.
54. Kefa followed him at a distance right into the courtyard of the cohen hagadol, where he sat down with the guards and warmed himself by the fire.
55. The head cohanim and the whole Sanhedrin tried to find evidence against Yeshua, so that they might have him put to death, but they couldn’t find any.
Sanhedrin. the "supreme court" of seventy judges (see Mt 5:22N). This nighttime meeting was illegal; some scholars believe this particular "Sanhedrin" was not even the official one at all. Nevertheless, there seems to be little doubt that this body, whoever it consisted of, included important establishment figures and in condemning Yeshua carried out an action which expressed the desire of many P'rushim and Tz 'dukim.

56. For many people gave false evidence against him, but their testimonies didn’t agree.
57. Some stood up and gave this false testimony:
58. “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this Temple made with hands; and in three days I will build another one, not made with hands.’”
Стих 58. Йешуа сказал до этого (Йохн. 2:19-22): "Разрушьте этот храм, и через три дня я восстановлю его". Но Йоханан объясняет: "'Храм, о котором он говорил, был его телом" и исполнением было воскресение Йешуа.

59. Even so, their testimonies didn’t agree.
60. The cohen hagadol stood up in the front and asked Yeshua, “Have you nothing to say to the accusations these men are making?”
61. But he remained silent and made no reply. Again the cohen hagadol questioned him: “Are you the Mashiach, Ben-HaM’vorakh?”
Стих 61. Молчал. Молчание Йешуа здесь и в 27:12-14 было исполнением пророчества Исайи 53:7: "Он принесён как ягнёнок на заклание; и как овца перед стригущими её молчит, так он не открывал уст".

62. “I AM,” answered Yeshua. “Moreover, you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of HaG’vurah and" coming on the clouds of heaven (Daniel 7:13; Psalm 110:1)
"Are you the Mashiach, Ben-HaM'vorakh ("the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One," i.e., the Son of God)?" "I AM." Some scholars assert that in the Synoptic Gospels Yeshua does not claim to be the Messiah. Such an assertion requires explaining away the plain sense of these verses. Here, in response to the direct question of the cohen htigadol, Yeshua does not hesitate; moreover, he uses the very word "Adonaf used to identify himself to Moses at the burning bush, when he said, "I AM who 1 AM" (Exodus 3:14; there are other possible translations of God's Hebrew words, "Ehyeh asher ehyeh," such as, "I will always be what I am now.") Thus Yeshua not only affirms that he is the Messiah, the Son of God (see Mt 4:3N), but hints that he is to be identified with Adonai himself. Yochanan reports other instances of such hints; see Yn 4:26&N, 18:6&N.

It is true that at an earlier stage of his ministry Yeshua did not want it known that he was the Messiah (see Mt 8:4N), but in these final days there was no "Messianic secret."

At Mt 26:64 Yeshua's answer to the cohen hagadol is reported as, "The words are yours." The literal translation of the Greek text there is, "You have said," and the phrase is taken as the equivalent of a straight "Yes" answer, much like the English phrase, "You said it!" (see Lk 22:70N, 23:3N). HaG'vurah ("the Power"). A euphemism for "God." See Mj 1:3N on "HaG'dulah BaM'romim."

63. At this, the cohen hagadol tore his clothes and said, “Why do we still need witnesses?
Tore his clothes. See Mt 26:65N.

64. You heard him blaspheme! What is your decision?” And they all declared him guilty and subject to the death penalty.
65. Then some began spitting at him; and after blindfolding him, they started pounding him with their fists and saying to him, “Let’s see you prophesy!” And as the guards took him, they beat him too.
66. Meanwhile, Kefa was still in the courtyard below. One of the serving-girls of the cohen hagadol
67. saw Kefa warming himself, took a look at him, and said, “You were with the man from Natzeret, Yeshua!”
68. But he denied it, saying, “I haven’t the faintest idea what you’re talking about!” He went outside into the entryway, and a rooster crowed.
69. The girl saw him there and started telling the bystanders, “This fellow is one of them.”
70. Again he denied it. A little later, the bystanders themselves said to Kefa, “You must be one of them, because you’re from the Galil.”
71. At this he began to invoke a curse on himself as he swore, “I do not know this man you are telling me about!” —
72. and immediately the rooster crowed a second time. Then Kefa remembered what Yeshua had said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will disown me three times.” And throwing himself down, he burst into tears.
Throwing himself down, or possibly, "beating his breast." Greek epibalon, "throwing oneself upon," "beating upon."

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