Mattityahu Jewish New Testament

chapter 19
1. When Yeshua had finished talking about these things, he left the Galil and traveled down the east side of the Yarden River until he passed the border of Y’hudah.
2. Great crowds followed him, and he healed them there.
3. Some P’rushim came and tried to trap him by asking, “Is it permitted for a man to divorce his wife on any ground whatever?”
4. He replied, “Haven’t you read that at the beginning the Creator made them male and female," (Bereshit - Genesis 1:27, 5:2)
5. and that he said, 'For this reason a man should leave his father and mother and be united with his wife, and the two are to become one flesh'"? (Bereshit - Genesis 1:24)
6. Thus they are no longer two, but one. So then, no one should split apart what God has joined together.”
7. They said to him, “Then why did Moshe give the commandment that a man should hand his wife a get and divorce her?" (Dvarim - Deuteronomy 24:1,3)
8. He answered, “Moshe allowed you to divorce your wives because your hearts are so hardened. But this is not how it was at the beginning.
9. Now what I say to you is that whoever divorces his wife, except on the ground of sexual immorality, and marries another woman commits adultery!”
The only text in the Five Books of Moses dealing with divorce is Deuteronomy 24:1-4, and its discussion of grounds is perfunctory. Hillel and Shammai, who lived in the generation before Yeshua, took opposing sides in interpreting this passage.

"The School of Shammai say a man may not divorce his wile unless he has found unchastity in her. as it is said, '...because he has found in her indecency in a matter.' But the School of Hillel say he may divorce her even if she burns his food, as it is said, '...because he has found in her indecency in a m«//pr.'"(Mishna: Gittin 9:10)

Yeshua in v. 9 agrees with the strict-constructionist Beit-Shammai. But although Beit-HUM's lenient position became the halakhic norm. Rabbi El'azar, a member of Beii-Hillel, commented in the Gemara to this mishna, "When a man divorces his first wife, even the altar sheds tears," citing Deuteronomy 24:13-14 as evidence (Gittin 90b). There is a Jewish tradition that in Messianic times the stricter rulings of Beit-Shammai will become the standard.

Yeshua in adducing Scripture harks back to the beginning, in Gan-Eden (vv. 4-5), to support his view that a marriage must not be dissolved for anything less than the most direct insult to its one-flesh integrity, adultery. Verse 9 may imply that divorce without remarriage is allowable for lesser reasons (see 5:31-32&NN). A second ground for divorce is given at 1С 7:12—16&N.

10. The talmidim said to him, “If that is how things are between husband and wife, it would be better not to marry!”
11. He said to them, “Not everyone grasps this teaching, only those for whom it is meant.
12. For there are different reasons why men do not marry — some because they were born without the desire, some because they have been castrated, and some because they have renounced marriage for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven. Whoever can grasp this, let him do so.”
Judaism has always considered marriage both normal and desirable — "The unmarried person lives without joy, without blessing and without good.... An unmarried man is not fully a man" (Talmud: Yevamot 62b-63a). On the other hand, some branches of Christianity came to grant abnormally high status to celibacy (on this phenomenon see 1С 7:l-40&NN). Depending on the calling and preferences of the individual, Yeshua allows that either the married or the single life can be one of service to God and humanity; and he takes care to minimize needless guilt on the part of those making the choice.

13. Then children were brought to him so that he might lay his hands on them and pray for them, but the talmidim rebuked the people bringing them.
14. However, Yeshua said, “Let the children come to me, don’t stop them, for the Kingdom of Heaven belongs to such as these.”
15. Then, after laying his hands on them, he went on his way.
16. A man approached Yeshua and said, “Rabbi, what good thing should I do in order to have eternal life?” He said to him,
17. “Why are you asking me about good? There is One who is good! But if you want to obtain eternal life, observe the mitzvot.”
18. The man asked him, “Which ones?” and Yeshua said, "Don’t murder, don’t commit adultery, don’t steal, don’t give false testimony (Exodus 20:13(13–16); Deuteronomy 5:17(17–20))
19. honor father and mother (Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16) and love your neighbor as yourself" (Vaikra - Leviticus 19:18)
Yeshua names the sixth through ninth and fifth of the Ten Commandments (see 5:21 N). These deal with interpersonal relationships, as does "Love your neighbor as yourself," which subsumes the others (Ro 13:8-10).

20. The young man said to him, “I have kept all these; where do I still fall short?”
21. Yeshua said to him, “If you are serious about reaching the goal, go and sell your possessions, give to the poor, and you will have riches in heaven. Then come, follow me!”
If you are serious about reaching the goal. Usually, and with equal justification, rendered, "If you want to be perfect." See Ro 10:4N.

22. But when the young man heard this, he went away sad, because he was wealthy.
23. Then Yeshua said to his talmidim, “Yes. I tell you that it will be very hard for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
24. Furthermore, I tell you that it is easier for a camel to pass through a needle’s eye than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God.”
Needle's eye. It is obviously impossible for the largest animal known in the region to pass through the smallest opening normally encountered. Late manuscripts and versions which substitute "cable" or "rope" for "camel," likewise commentaries which suppose the "needle's eye" refers to a small gate kept open in a large gate closed to protect a walled city, are later efforts to tone down Yeshua's starkly incongruous image. (This note has been corrected from earlier editions.)

25. When the talmidim heard this they were utterly amazed. “Then who,” they asked, “can be saved?”
26. Yeshua looked at them and said, “Humanly, this is impossible; but with God everything is possible.”
27. Kefa replied, “Look, we have left everything and followed you. So what will we have?”
28. Yeshua said to them, “Yes. I tell you that in the regenerated world, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Isra’el.
The Tanakh speaks of a regenerated world at Isaiah 1:25-2:5, 11:1-16, 65:17; Jeremiah 23:3-8,30:1-31:40; Micah 4:1-5:3; Zechariah 12:1-14:21; Psalms 2,22,89; Daniel 7-12. Note also Ro 8:19-23, Rv 21:1-22:5. Rabbinic literature speaks of the 'olam haba ("world" or "age to come") and describes its time and character in such places in the Talmud as Sanhedrin 96-99.

You... will also sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. An important New Testament verse confirming God's promises to national Israel, e.g., Isaiah 1:26, "And I will restore your judges as at first." See also Ezekiel 48, Isaiah 9:5-6 (6-7). This verse gives a rationale for choosing twelve emissaries (10:2-4) and maintaining that number (Ac 1:15-26); also compare Rv 21:10-14.

29. Everyone who has left houses, brothers, sisters, father, mother, children or fields for my sake will receive a hundred times more, and he will obtain eternal life.
30. But many who are first will be last, and many who are last will be first.

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