Revelation Jewish New Testament, JNT, CJNT, David H. Stern
1. Then I saw another sign in heaven, a great and wonderful one — seven angels with the seven plagues that are the final ones; because with them, God’s fury is finished.
Seven angels have "seven bowls" (16:1) containing the seven plagues. These bowls are poured out on the earth (16:2-21); and with them, God's fury is finished.
2. I saw what looked like a sea of glass mixed with fire. Those defeating the beast, its image and the number of its name were standing by the sea of glass, holding harps which God had given them.
3. They were singing the song of Moshe, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb:
“Great and wonderful are the things you have done,
Adonai, God of heaven’s armies! (Amos 3:13, 4:13)
Just and true are your ways,
king of the nations!
4. Adonai, who will not fear and glorify your name?
because you alone are holy.
All nations will come and worship before you,
for your righteous deeds have been revealed.”
Those defeating the beast (13:1-8&N. 13:11-12&N). its image (13:14-15), and the number of its name (13:17-18&N) are seen standing by the sea of glass (see 4:6N), just as the Israelites stood by the Red Sea after their Egyptian pursuers were drowned in it. At that time the Israelites sang the song of Moshe (Exodus 15:1-18; see 13:4&N), which is included in its entirety in the daily morning synagogue service and liberally quoted again in the twice-daily blessing after the Sh 'ma. The victors over the beast will sing the Song of Moses, signifying that true believers in Yeshua fully identify with the Jewish people.
The song of the Lamb, as given in w. 3b-4, is not sung to or about the Lamb, but by the Lamb to God —just as the Song of Moses was sung by Moses and not to him. Just as the victorious Jewish people learned and sang the song which Moses sang (Exodus 15:1), so the victorious believers in heaven learn and sing the song which the Lamb sings. Like the Song of Moses the Song of the Lamb exults in the just ways of God, using the language of the Tanakh as found in Jeremiah 10:7; Amos 3:13, 4:13; Malachi 1:11; Psalms 86:9-10, 92:6(5), 98:1, 111:2, 139:14, 145:17; I Chronicles 16:9, 12. But unlike the Song of Moses it also brings out that in the final judgment God is revealed as king of the nations, king of the whole world, as prophesied in Zechariah 14:9, so that all nations will come and worship before him — as predicted in the continuation of that passage (Zechariah 14:16-20).
5. After this I looked, and the sanctuary (that is, the Tent of Witness in heaven) was opened,
The sanctuary (that is, the Tent of Witness). The word "tent" appears only here in Revelation. If there was a Hebrew original underlying our Greek text, this phrase, unique in ancient literature, could be explained as a corruption of "the Temple of God in heaven," which appears with the same verb ("was opened") at 11:19. If the phrase stands as translated, the "sanctuary" is the Holy of Holies, which was also the location (or "tent") of the ark of the Covenant (MJ 9:4&N), called the ark of the Testimony throughout Exodus 25-40. Verse 8 supports this rendering, for we read that the smoke from God's Sh'khinah filled the sanctuary; in Exodus and Ezekiel God's glory inhabited the sanctuary. These final "bowl" plagues come from God's ultimate holiness.
6. and out of the sanctuary came the seven angels with the seven plagues. They were dressed in clean bright linen and had gold belts around their chests.
7. One of the four living beings gave to the seven angels seven gold bowls filled with the fury of God, who lives forever and ever.
8. Then the sanctuary was filled with smoke from God’s Sh’khinah, that is, from his power; and no one could enter the sanctuary until the seven plagues of the seven angels had accomplished their purpose.
Messianic Jews 9:5 understands "the к 'ruvim..., casting their shadow on the lid of the Ark." as "representing the Sh'khinah," in the earthly Holy of Holies. Thus it is no surprise to find that in heaven the sanctuary was filled with smoke from God's Sh'khinah (see Paragraph (3) of MJ 1:2-3N). At 13:6. the beast insulted God's "name and his Sh'khinah, and those living in heaven" and "was allowed to make war on God's holy people and to defeat them." Now the tables are turned, with God's people victorious, and God's fury about to be poured out on those who follow the beast.
- chapter 1
- chapter 2
- chapter 3
- chapter 4
- chapter 5
- chapter 6
- chapter 7
- chapter 8
- chapter 9
- chapter 10
- chapter 11
- chapter 12
- chapter 13
- chapter 14
- chapter 15
- chapter 16
- chapter 17
- chapter 18
- chapter 19
- chapter 20
- chapter 21
- chapter 22