Yohanan Jewish New Testament and comments of David H. Stern

chapter 15
1. “I am the real vine, and my Father is the gardener.
I am the real vine. Israel is also God's vine or vineyard; see Isaiah 5:1-7, 27:2-6; Jeremiah 2:21, 12:10; Ezekiel I7:5-«;Hosea 10:1 Joel 1:7; Psalm 80:8-16; and compare Yeshuas parables at Mt 21:33-43, Mk 12:1-12, Lk 20:9-19. The fact that "vine" describes both the Jewish people and its Messiah reinforces the close identification of Yeshua with Israel (Mt 2:15N). The Messianic Jewish remnant (Ro 9:6ff., 11:1-10) will obey Yeshua's commands, stay attached to the real vine, and have the real vine's power and strength to bring forth good fruit (Mt 7:16-19). And so will (he grafted-in Gentile Christian branches (Ro 11:17-24).

2. Every branch which is part of me but fails to bear fruit, he cuts off; and every branch that does bear fruit, he prunes, so that it may bear more fruit.
Fruit, whai grows naturally out of a plant or situation. At Ga 5:22-23 it refers to character qualities given by the Holy Spirit, at Mt 13:1-23 perhaps to other people who trust Yeshua. at Ro 6:21-22 to righteousness.

Prunes. The Greek word means, literally, "cleans." To clean of excess foliage is to prune, but the context also calls lo mind cleansing from sin (see 13:7ff.).

3. Right now, because of the word which I have spoken to you, you are pruned.
4. Stay united with me, as I will with you — for just as the branch can’t put forth fruit by itself apart from the vine, so you can’t bear fruit apart from me.
5. “I am the vine and you are the branches. Those who stay united with me, and I with them, are the ones who bear much fruit; because apart from me you can’t do a thing.
6. Unless a person remains united with me, he is thrown away like a branch and dries up. Such branches are gathered and thrown into the fire, where they are burned up.
7. “If you remain united with me, and my words with you, then ask whatever you want, and it will happen for you.
8. This is how my Father is glorified — in your bearing much fruit; this is how you will prove to be my talmidim.
9. “Just as my Father has loved me, I too have loved you; so stay in my love.
10. If you keep my commands, you will stay in my love — just as I have kept my Father’s commands and stay in his love.
I have kept my father's commands. This probably refers to 14:31. The context gives no ground for considering it an assertion that Yeshua obeyed the Torah perfectly.

11. I have said this to you so that my joy may be in you, and your joy be complete.
12. “This is my command: that you keep on loving each other just as I have loved you.
13. No one has greater love than a person who lays down his life for his friends.
14. You are my friends, if you do what I command you.
15. I no longer call you slaves, because a slave doesn’t know what his master is about; but I have called you friends, because everything I have heard from my Father I have made known to you.
Yeshua's talmidim are no longer his slaves but his friends. Later, talmidim are his brothers, God's sons by adoption (Ro 8:14-17, Ga 3:27-4:8).

16. You did not choose me, I chose you; and I have commissioned you to go and bear fruit, fruit that will last; so that whatever you ask from the Father in my name he may give you.
Go and bear fruit (v. 2N). Staying (vv. 1-8) and going are consistent with each other: the Messianic lifestyle is, an one hand, passive and receptive and, on the other, active, transmissive and productive.

17. This is what I command you: keep loving each other!
18. “If the world hates you, understand that it hated me first.
19. If you belonged to the world, the world would have loved its own. But because you do not belong to the world — on the contrary, I have picked you out of the world — therefore the world hates you.
20. Remember what I told you, ‘A slave is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted me, they will persecute you too; if they kept my word, they will keep yours too.
21. But they will do all this to you on my account, because they don’t know the One who sent me.
22. “If I had not come and spoken to them, they wouldn’t be guilty of sin; but now, they have no excuse for their sin.
23. Whoever hates me hates my Father also.
См. 1 Йн. 2:22-23 и ком.

24. If I had not done in their presence works which no one else ever did, they would not be guilty of sin; but now, they have seen them and have hated both me and my Father.
25. But this has happened in order to fulfill the words in their Torah which read, 'They hated me for no reason at all (Psalms 35:19; 69:5(4)).
The Talmud asks,
"Why was the Second Sanctuary destroyed, seeing that in its time they occupied themselves with studying Torah, obeying mitzvot and practicing charity? Because in it prevailed hatred without a cause." (Yoma 9b)

The world's hate for Christians and Messianic Jews stems from its hate for the Messiah. Those of whom Yeshua was speaking actually saw and experienced what he did and hated him anyway because they did not want to give up their sin and live righteously (16:7-11).

26. “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send you from the Father — the Spirit of Truth, who keeps going out from the Father — he will testify on my behalf.
27. And you testify too, because you have been with me from the outset.

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