2 Timothy Jewish New Testament and comments of David H. Stern
1. So then, you, my son, be empowered by the grace that comes from the Messiah Yeshua.
2. And the things you heard from me, which were supported by many witnesses, these things commit to faithful people, such as will be competent to teach others also.
Four generations in the tradition-passing process: me (Sha'ul), you (Timothy), faithful people and others also (compare Avot 1:1, quoted at Ac 6:13-I4N). It is not enough to know or even to teach; one must make sure that at least some of those taught will be competent to teach others also; otherwise the movement dies. (I have heard of a school in South America where the students are graded by the examinations which their students write.) To do this will require a bold stand — which brings Sha'ul back to the subject of suffering disgrace (vv. 3-7; see 1:7-8, 15-16 above).
3. Accept your share in suffering disgrace as a good soldier of the Messiah Yeshua.
4. No soldier on duty gets involved with civilian affairs, since he has to please his commanding officer.
5. Also an athlete can’t win a contest unless he competes according to the rules.
According to the rules. See 2C 4:1-2N.
6. The farmer who has done the hard work should be the first to receive a share of the harvest.
Compare Lk 10:7, 1С 9:4-12, Ga 6:6.
7. Think about what I am saying, for the Lord will enable you to understand everything.
8. Remember Yeshua the Messiah, who was raised from the dead, who was a descendant of David. This is the Good News I proclaim,
Compare Ro 1:3-4, a similar epitome of the Good News. Sha'ul's phrase, "who was raised from the dead," looks forward to his refuting Hymenaeus and Philetus (vv. 17-18).
9. and for which I am suffering to the point of being bound in chains — but the Word of God is not bound in chains!
10. Why do I persevere through it all? For the sake of those who have been chosen, so that they too may obtain the deliverance that comes through the Messiah Yeshua, with eternal glory.
Compare 1С 9:19, 22b-23.
11. Here is a statement you can trust:
If we have died with him,
we will also live with him.
12. If we persevere,
we will also rule with him
If we disown him,
he will also disown us.
13. If we are faithless,
he remains faithful,
for he cannot disown himself.
Like Pp 2:6-11 and 1 Ti 3:16, this is another hymn. Verse 11 (compare Ro 6:5) relates to the resurrection heresy of v. 18, vv. 12-13 to Timothy's fear. If we persevere, we will rule with him, according to Rv 3:21,20:4. If we disown him, he will disown us, according to Mt 10:33, Lk 12:8-9. Even if we arc faithless, he remains faithful. true to his promises; see Ro 3:3-4&N, 9:6a&N.
14. Keep reminding people of this, and charge them solemnly before the Lord not to engage in word-battles. They accomplish nothing useful and are a catastrophe for the hearers!
15. Do all you can to present yourself to God as someone worthy of his approval, as a worker with no need to be ashamed, because he deals straightforwardly with the Word of the Truth.
16. But keep away from godless babbling, for those who engage in it will only become more ungodly,
No need to be ashamed, compare above, 1:8,16; 2:3-7. Deals straightforwardly, honestly (see 2C 4:1-2N), with the Word of the Truth (the Good News about Yeshua), without word-battles and godless babbling (compare v. 23; 1 Ti 6:4-5, 20-21). Examples in the modern context would include arguments over eternal punishment in hell with people who have no intention of repenting, or over Yeshua's virgin birth with unbelievers whose presuppositions exclude the possibility.
17. and their teaching will eat away at people like gangrene. Hymenaeus and Philetus are among these;
Hymenaeus Sha'ul had already excommunicated at 1 Ti 1:20, but apparently this did not put an end to his mischief. Philetus is not mentioned elsewhere.
18. they have missed the mark, as far as the truth is concerned, by saying that our resurrection has already taken place; and they are overturning some people’s faith.
Our resurrection has already taken place, spiritually, in immersion; no physical resurrection is to be expected. From Co 2:12 and Ro 6:5 one can see how such views start. They were held in Corinth too, but Sha'ul countered them, pointing out that faith without a hope of physical resurrection is useless (1 Corinthians 15). A somewhat similar teaching, that the Day of the Lord had already come, was current in Thessalonica (2 Th 2:2-3).
19. Nevertheless, God’s firm foundation stands, stamped with these words: “The Lord knows his own,” (Numbers 16:5; Nahum 1:7) and, “Let everyone who claims he belongs to the Lord
stand apart from wrongdoing.” (Numbers 16:26)
20. In a large house there are dishes and pots not only of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay. That is, some are meant for honorable use and some for dishonorable.
21. If a person keeps himself free of defilement by the latter, he will be a vessel set aside for honorable use by the master of the house and ready for every kind of good work.
22. So, flee the passions of youth; and, along with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart, pursue righteousness, faithfulness, love and peace.
The "pots" metaphor is the same as at Ro 9:21. Also compare the ritual purification of pots spoken of at Mk 7:3-4 with the purity of heart spoken of here (v. 22).
23. But stay away from stupid and ignorant controversies — you know that they lead to fights,
24. and a slave of the Lord shouldn’t fight. On the contrary, he should be kind to everyone, a good teacher, and not resentful when mistreated.
25. Also he should be gentle as he corrects his opponents. For God may perhaps grant them the opportunity to turn from their sins, acquire full knowledge of the truth,
26. come to their senses and escape the trap of the Adversary, after having been captured alive by him to do his will.
On dealing with those who differ, and why.
- chapter 1
- chapter 2
- chapter 3
- chapter 4