2 Timothy Jewish New Testament and comments of David H. Stern

chapter 4
1. I solemnly charge you before God and the Messiah Yeshua, who will judge the living and the dead when he appears and establishes his Kingdom:
See vv. 6-8N. 

2. proclaim the Word! Be on hand with it whether the time seems right or not. Convict, censure and exhort with unfailing patience and with teaching.
Proclaim the Word, thai is, the Good News. See v. 5N. Teaching; convict, censure... exhort. These correspond to the uses of Scripture named at 3:16. 

3. For the time is coming when people will not have patience for sound teaching, but will cater to their passions and gather around themselves teachers who say whatever their ears itch to hear.
4. Yes, they will stop listening to the truth, but will turn aside to follow myths.
Compare 3:7. Myths. Compare 1 Ti 1:4. 4:7. 

5. But you, remain steady in every situation, endure suffering, do the work that a proclaimer of the Good News should, and do everything your service to God requires.
A proclaimer of the Good News. The phrase translates Greek evangelistos, "evangelist," equivalent to Hebrew m'vasser. Philip is called this at Ac 21:8. Evangelists are among the gifts God has given to the Messianic Community (Ep 4:11). By the Great Commission (Ml 28:18-20&N), believers are commanded to proclaim the Good News to all nations, Gentiles and Jews alike. 

6. For as for me, I am already being poured out on the altar; yes, the time for my departure has arrived.
7. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.
8. All that awaits me now is the crown of righteousness which the Lord, “the Righteous Judge,” will award to me on that Day — and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for him to appear.
In his lasi farewell Sinful uses phrases from his own past. Poured out on the altar, compare Pp 2:17. Departure, compare Pp 1:23.1 have fought the good fight, compare 1 Ti 1:18.6:12.1 have completed the course, compare Ac 20:24,1С 9:25, MJ 12:1-2. But finally, Sha'ul, ever Jewish, uses Jewish death language. The Jewish burial service contains these lines:

"O True and Righteous Judge! Blessed be the True Judge, all of whose judgments are righteous and true."

The phrase, "the Righteous Judge," is found in connection with Y'hudah HaMakkabi's prayer for fallen Jewish soldiers at 2 Maccabees 12:41 (see also 2 Maccabees 12:6). However, the Righteous Judge is the Lord, "the Messiah Yeshua, who will judge the living and the dead when he appears and establishes his Kingdom" (v. I; compare Yn 5:22-30). 

9. Do your best to come to me soon.
10. For Demas, because he has fallen in love with this present world, has deserted me and gone off to Thessalonica; Crescens has gone to Galatia; Titus has gone to Dalmatia —
11. only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with you, because he is a very useful helper in my work.
12. But Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus.
Demas and Luke (the author of the books of Luke and Acts) were fellow-workers with Sha'ul; see Co 4:14N. The tragedy of Demas' falling away could not be more poignantly expressed; see 1:15N. Crescens, otherwise unknown, and Titus, recipient in Crete of Sha'ul's letter, presumably were not deserters but dispatched by Sha'ul. 

13. When you come, bring the coat which I left with Carpus in Troas, also the scrolls and especially the parchments.
14. Alexander the metalworker did me a great deal of harm; the Lord will render to him according to his works; (2 Samuel 3:39; Psalms 28:4; 62:13(12); Proverbs 24:12)
Tychicus, see Ер 6:2IN. Carpus, otherwise unknown. Alexander, probably the same as at 1 Ti 1:20&N. 

15. and you should guard against him, because he bitterly opposed everything we said.
16. The first time I had to present my defense, no one stood by me; everyone deserted me — may it not be counted against them.
May it not be counted against them. Compare Lk 23:34, Ac 7:60. 

17. But the Lord stood by me and gave me power to proclaim the full message for all the Goyim to hear, and I was rescued from the lion’s mouth (Psalm 22:22(21); Daniel 6:21(20), 23(22))
18. The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and bring me safely into his heavenly Kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
19. Greet Priscilla and Aquila and the household of Onesiphorus.
Prisciila and Aquila, see Ac 18:2N, Ro 16:3N. Onesiphorus, see 1:16-18 above. 

20. Erastus has remained in Corinth, and Trophimus I left ill at Miletus.
Erastus was sent with Timothy from Ephesus to Macedonia (Ac 19:22); he could be identical with the "city treasurer" of Corinth mentioned at Ro 16:23. Trophimus and Tychicus (above) represented the congregations in the province of Asia in the group which accompanied Sha'ul when he brought the contribution from the congregations he had founded to the Messianic Jews in Jerusalem (Ac 20:4,21:29). 

21. Do your best to come before winter. Eubulus sends greetings to you, as do Pudens, Linus, Claudia and all the brothers.
Irenaeus (с. 180 C.E.) writes that Linus succeeded Kefa (Peter) as leader of the Roman church, so that the Roman Catholic Church counts him the second Pope. By tradition Claudia was the wife of either Linus or Pudens. 

22. The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you.

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